Columbia Engineers Provide New Insight into How the Brain Regulates Its Blood Flow

Why is it so difficult for neurologists and other doctors in charge of neuro-Imagedegenerative diseases to at least peruse paper after paper published that shows a direct link to vascular anomalies in these conditions?

 “Once we realized the importance of endothelial signaling in the regulation of blood flow in the brain,” Hillman adds, “we wondered whether overlooking the vascular endothelium might have led researchers to misinterpret their results.”

Do People Die from Multiple Sclerosis?

“Knowledge is power: knowledge without the use of common sense and wisdom is intellectual suicide”~ Linda Rousay

 People die every day from MS. It’s true. The reason you don’t hear much about these deaths is because of semantics. When you are diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis it is considered an incurable disease. When you die, an autopsy may or may not be preformed. Regardless, the outcome is the same, once you are labeled with MS, it doesn’t matter if the neurological damage stops your heart from beating or your intestines close up not allowing food in, death will always be listed as “Died of Natural Causes.” Therefore the claim that MS rarely kills is a blatant lie, everyone with MS will die, the aggressiveness of the disease just dictates how fast it will kill you. The ANA published a paper in 2009 about 5 pages long with one little over looked statement. “It is impossible to know how many people die from complications of MS, for reasons stated above..( for the sake of time, I didn’t paste the entire page here ~LRousay).

…”Post mortem examinations are not routinely performed in patients with MS. In the United States alone, reported deaths from complications of this disease exceeded 1,000 in 2007.” MS is usually diagnosed in people between the ages of 20-40. Those figures are misleading because many people are misdiagnosed in their teens only to be correctly diagnosed with MS 10 to 20 years later. Many people are not diagnosed for many years after symptom onset. In the case of trauma onset MS, a person might be diagnosed much younger. 

Post mortem evidence has shown that a substantial number of people are never diagnosed with MS during their lifetime. Scleroderma, chronic fatigue syndrome, Hughes Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, NMO or Devic’s disease, dementia, major depressive disorder, in fact over a dozen conditions or more are routinely misdiagnosed when a the person indeed has MS. It works in reverse also. People with those conditions may be given an MS diagnosis when they do not have it at all. 

In addition to MS, we are as susceptible to any other diseases or condition as the general population. Because our symptoms are so diverse, it becomes very convenient to blame every ailment or physical anomaly on Multiple Sclerosis. People have died from cancer, COPD, liver failure, kidney disease etc. who could have been saved if they were correctly diagnosed. 

Chronic pain exists for 40 to 60 % of people with MS. If their doctor treats only the pain, terminal illness can develop while the person has no knowledge of its existence because they are led to believe it is just another manifestation of MS. 

In general, most neurologists agree that the life span is “near normal” for PwMS. When I asked what “near normal” is from the CDC, I was told that 8 or 9 years would be considered a reasonable loss of time a person could expect with MS. I don’t know about you but I think I might have a few important things to do in 8 or 9 years’ time; especially if I had a “near normal” quality of life.

Common causes of death in People with MS:

  1. Pulmonary involvement
  2. Severe infections, sepsis
  3. Aspiration pneumonia
  4. Suicide
  5. Thermal Injury
  6. Demyelinating lesions, involving brain regions that regulate cardio-respiratory activity
  7. Pulmonary embolism
  8. PML

 A study done in Scotland in 1990’s: a sampling of 216 patients 67% died from complications of MS

85 % die within 20 years of onset at age 50.

Causes Death in Multiple Sclerosis: Death rate is greatly accelerated in those who have progressive disability

  1.  Bronchopneumonia 55%
  2.   Septicemia 11%  
  3.  Myocardial infarction 15%
  4.   Documented pulmonary embolism 4%

Death rate  increases substantially when Secondary Progressive MS is diagnosed.

“MS is not fatal, but some complications which can arise from more severe MS, such as pneumonia, can be.” (NHS UK) (This statement makes reason stare)

As a result, the average life expectancy for people with MS is around 10 years lower than the population at large.

A Society clinical bulletin on Pulmonary Function and Rehabilitation states that “Just as muscular weakness in the limbs occurs early in the disease and increases as the disease progresses, the same progressive weakening occurs in the ventilatory muscles. Ultimately, respiratory complications are considered the major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with advanced MS.”

Immobility due to MS can cause pressure or bedsores. Pressure sores usually begin with minimal problems but  left untreated  progresses  more serious infections including sepsis – basically a full-body infection caused, in the case of pressure sores, by bacteria entering via the open wounds. Many factors can contribute to pressure sores; they include immobility or inactivity, decreased sensation, bowel or bladder incontinence and poor nutrition. PwMS are more susceptible to colonized staph infections and MRSA than the general population for the same reasons.

 Other common infections which can lead to life-threatening consequences include recurrent and severe urinary tract infections (UTIs) it is not uncommon for those predisposed to UTI infections to have great difficulty in curing them. Some people have ongoing infections in the urinary tract that eventually infect the entire urinary system. Kidney disease and failure often follows. Antibiotics, the normal first line of defense, becomes the problem as the body builds a resistance to them calling for more potent and broader spectrum antibiotics. There have been no appreciable developments in the development of better antibiotics in several decades. MRSA has become a problem worldwide with no overall or comprehensive accepted or treatment.

Dysphagia – or swallowing problems – can cause food or liquid to be aspirated into the lungs. The body reacts with  inflammation and fluid accumulation  leading to pneumonia and respiratory failure.

The reported rates of a person with MS committing or involved with assisted suicide has risen from 6% 10 years ago to 15% in 2011. Depression left un-diagnosed and therefore untreated is the number one cause.

Palliative care is a more comprehensive approach to healthcare. It involves the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual care of people with progressive MS. Palliative care should be provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work to provide for all of the needs of the MS patient and their families. Fear of the future and quality of life are by  the biggest concerns I hear every day from PwMS. Palliative care is not synonymous with hospice care, though it often turns out that way. The goal should not be to make one’s passing easier, but a concerted effort to locate and provide the best medical care as well as a means to cope with everyday life. It is as important for those receiving treatment for curable diseases or progressive disability as it is for those facing end of life decisions. There is no cure for MS any more than there is a cure for growing old. That doesn’t mean that recovery and a diminished QOL are  forgone consequences.

CCSVI, Vitamin & Mineral deficiencies, skeletal misalignment, Lyme Disease,are a few but treatable aspects of MS.Image

Pradaxa and CCSVI

Pradaxa is normally used for people with atrial fibrillation to prevent blood clots from this type of heart rhythm problem.  It is sometimes used for CCSVI patients post procedure even though Warfarin and other prescription anti-coagulants and/or blood thinners are less risky.  Pradaxa is being blamed for more than 500 deaths. Pradaxa is significantly associated with a higher risk of heart attacks and chest pain than Warfarin.

In January of this year, the Institute for Safe Medication Practice published a study that found Pradaxa bleeds were about 5 times more likely than Warfarin to result in death… that means a person taking Pradaxa is   500% more likely to die from a bleed than if they are taking Warfarin. There is no antidote if a Pradaxa patient starts bleeding.Vitamin K which is used in Warfarin incidents does not work for patients taking Pradaxa. At this time there are more than 1,100 lawsuits in federal court against Boehringer Ingelheim for adverse Pradaxa side effects. Of course this is only in the United States. Pradaxa use in the UK is rising.

Below I have listed supplements and foods that are used for their blood thinning qualities.

  1. Vitamin B-6
  2. Vitamin E
  3. Omega- 3 Fatty Acids
  4. Iron
  5. Magnesium
  6. Turmeric
  7. Bromelain
  8. Willow bark
  9. Tree Ear
  10. Jicama
  11. Garlic
  12. Onions
  13. Olive Oil
  14. Ginseng
  15. Green Tea    

Salicylates help to block vitamin K. Aspirin is the most well known. Many spices, nuts, and dried fruits are high in salicylates.


  • Curry powder
  • Cayenne pepper
  • Ginger
  • Paprika
  • Thyme
  • Cinnamon
  • Dill
  • Oregano
  • Turmeric
  • Licorice
  • Peppermint


  • Raisins
  • Prunes
  • Cherries
  • Cranberries
  • Blueberries
  • Grapes
  • Strawberries
  • Tangerines
  • Oranges

Other sources of salicylates:

  • Chewing gum
  • Honey
  • Peppermints
  • Vinegar
  • Wine
  • Cider

If you are taking Pradaxa after the Liberation Procedure, be sure that you are informed and understand the alternatives.Image

Lesions and Lies

Those who are bedazzled with the medical jargon of their neurologists do themselves a disservice. They count and assess brain and spinal lesions like pennies dropped one by one into a piggy bank. After all, monetary compensation is the major motivation for MS care providers in general. Ask them to,explain brain and spinal lesions and be prepared for a smorgasbord of nonsensical medical verbiage and doublespeak that is second to none; bring a lunch and take notes.

Lesions are part and parcel for MS. There is little question that neurological damage can occur. They are caused by the reflux of iron into the brain due to impaired blood flow. In “normal ” people blood drains easily from the brain back to the body.This fact stares in the face of the currently accepted cause of Multiple Sclerosis.

To my knowledge there are only a handful of neurologists in the world who accept the fact (at least publicly) that lesions are not caused by a faulty immune or over active immune system. If your neurologist tells you that you need to take disease modifying drugs to manipulate your immune system and you believe that line of reasoning then there is little that anyone else can do for you. I’m speaking to every one in general not an individual.

Unless or until normal blood flow can be restored, it is likely that damage will progress. There are many ways to treat CCSVI. We in this group have identified approximately a dozen or more reasons why we have the symptoms we have identified and a laundry list of things to do to improve our health.

The most common and accepted belief is that our options in health care are limited to the choices our doctors make. As long as we are willing to adhere to protocol dictated by governments, HMO’s, insurance companies, drug companies, and organizations such as the Multiple Sclerosis Societies, nothing will change, including our inability to acquire a quality of life we deserve and they take for granted. We are like a willow in the wind leaning in whatever direction the wind blows. They are the ones who manipulate the breeze .

For over 4 years groups of like minded people have fought to change the status quo with varying degrees of success. People who do not have MS as it is defined for us by the powers that be, are observers and dictators. We are the observed and subservient . We do not have the political, professional, legal, or financial resources to balance that of the aforementioned. Canada leads their people by the nose with promises to placate them into compliance. People in the UK have been totally ignored without the benefit of any promises whatsoever. The United States appears to be the only country where the people are free to choose a wider variety of health care options. Looks can be deceiving. The US government’s coercion is simply more subtle.

Progress has been made on a small scale. Unfortunately it has been of benefit to a somewhat limited number of people. MS is hardly the lone bastard disease bereft of fair representation and treatment. It merely seems that way to the people who own it.

Food for thought:

(This is an excerpt from a blog I wrote about the growing conflict in the clinical diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis and how it relates to CCSVI,  trauma,Chlamydia pneumoniae,vitamin and mineral deficiencies and other causal factors in both MS and  CCSVI.)745056-fig2Probiotics_Info_from_siteshapeimage_9SpirochetesEx2[1]

Now that Lyme has become a hot topic, people are demanding better testing facilities. A fair number of people previously diagnosed with MS have learned they have Lyme Disease. That is another factor in the growing suspicion that MS as it is globally defined, is not a disease at all but rather a term used to pigeon hole people into a generic box of symptoms. Interestingly enough, some of these people also have CCSVI and been treated successfully with angioplasty.

This has been a fascinating puzzle for me but I have finally come to make some sense of it. Most venous anomalies are congenital, not to be confused with hereditary. Ten people can be bitten by ticks who harbor the spirochetes that cause Lyme disease. Statistically speaking less than half of them will actually develop the disease, other health issues not withstanding. We are beginning to get a clearer picture of “MS” with in depth review of the facts we have learned about CCSVI over the past several years. The narrow view that CCSVI is confined to PwMS has been blown out of the water. Some patients with other neurological disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia and Alzheimer’s disease meet the criteria for CCSVI also. It’s no wonder that people are confused by the diverse laundry list of symptoms among those in the MS community.

How It feels To Be An MS Dropout…

When MS began to drastically affect my life, I was a wife, mother and career professional with many varied interests. I was active in my church, community and home schooled my children. The first thing to go was my career. Instead of getting paid, I did volunteer work in the same field. People are more forgiving of your physical problems and cog fog if they aren’t paying you. Eventually my youngest daughter decided to finish her last two years of high school in the public school system. Actually I think I was more involved with her education than I was before as I volunteered for everything at school also.

By the time my EDSS reached 8.0 there was little of the old ‘me’ left. I went from caregiver to needing daily care myself. I hated the power chair, scooter, transfer table, disabled license plates for the handicap equipped van, support bars, in-home health care and me. I didn’t adapt to my situation as well as some of my “MS buddies”; likely because I’m stubborn, opinionated and was accustomed to giving not taking. Though they tried to adapt also, my family seemed to be falling apart before my eyes.

Somewhere along the line I stopped feeling sorry for myself and saved as many *spoons as I could to find ways to feel better physically hoping that emotional strength would follow. Posting online took so much time that I was numb with fatigue. My online friends (some have actually remained friends) pulled me through it all. I searched the web to find adaptive aids to help me keyboard, communicate and make things look bigger so my failing eyes could see them.

The lifestyle diet and drug changes I made would have been difficult for anyone. In my hazy cognitively impaired stupor, it was a gargantuan obstacle. Again my husband, children and MS friends came to the rescue. By the time I heard about CCSVI nothing short of a miracle was going to slow my downward spiral.

The rest is Youtube and Facebook history. There is still a question mark that obscures my sight from the future but I no longer fear the unknown because I’ve mastered it before; always with “a little help from my friends. I get by with a little help from my friends.” (John Lennon and Paul McCartney)

The transition back to normalcy has been bittersweet. I still have to pinch myself when I wake up in the morning and there is no support bar above my head. The van was sold well over a year ago and every adaptive and assistive device but my power chair gathering dust in the garage has been given away or donated.  Much of it I had to fight for from either my insurance company or a charitable organization. . Some people have said I was crazy to get rid of all of those things that took me so long to accumulate because my recovery from MS symptoms could be taken away anytime. Perhaps they are right yet I can’t live in limbo either.

I would like to say that the journey home has been bright and beautiful, and for the most part it has been very positive. As my cognitive functions improved I learned that about 15 years of my MS journey has been time compressed. Though I remember the events of the past decade and a half, there are holes in the tapestry of time that are as hazy as they were the first time around. After the news of Dr. Zamboni’s work exploded in cyber space chaos ensued. The trust I once readily gave my doctors is gone forever. I have formed new medical alliances, but the days of trust and reliance will never again be realized. New friendships have been forged yet cannot replace the ones lost by anger and mistrust. New beginnings are always difficult, sometimes painful. Though I am in communication with others who have had similar experiences, we have all chosen different ways to deal with recovery. The excitement and gratitude for a second chance has been tempered somewhat by the more negative events of the past two years. The diagnosis of MS places a person in a strange club of sorts. There is only one requirement to join this group, but the price is so high that nobody wants to belong. Some who have only residual effects of the condition no longer feel “at home” anymore. Others would like to pretend that they were never even there. One woman I know was once extremely overweight. She could tell self-effacing jokes that made all of her more portly friends tear up in laughter. When she lost enough weight to look “normal” she began to realize that these friends didn’t laugh anymore when she told her jokes. Laughter was replaced with embarrassment, anger and maybe a touch of envy. In any case, she was no longer welcome in that “club” because she did not meet the one requirement: obesity. It can be that way for PwMS/CCSVI also.

The only regret I feel comes from the inequity among us. Gender, age, location, education, money, influence, achievements or any other disparity that may exist for us should have no effect on our opportunity to be treated. Though I may not be personally responsible for the egregious treatment of PwMS/CCSVI in regard to the access to the proper medical care, guilt does ebb and flow unbidden.

It is past time for reparation and equal access. To continue to allow the suffering, indignity and declining quality of life for thousands of people with a debilitating chronic disease solely to appease those with a personal agenda is an inhumane, heinous act of cowardice.


*Anyone who has not been introduced to the “Spoon Story” by Christine Miserandino , you can find it here:

Lyme Disease, MS/CCSVI Just the Facts Please

This is a long read about Lyme disease, but one you don’t want to miss if you have MS/CCSVI.

 So you found out you that you have Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency . You are fortunate enough to have angioplasty to treat the condition and have gained some symptom relief. Since the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis has become blurred with other conditions you might decide to be tested for other diseases just to be sure. After 12 years of progressive MS you find out that you have Lyme disease. How did that happen? You never saw a tick, or bulls eye rash which are two of the main tell tale signs of the disease. Don’t feel bad a high percentage of people with Lyme are certain they never have been bitten by a tick. In retrospect, some remember the black dot on their head and thought it was a piece of bark, or a freckle that they accidently scraped off their ankle.


Though I have written many times about Lyme disease, more people with an MS diagnosis are being tested and found positive for Lyme disease. This is a result of thinking for ourselves and taking charge of our own healthcare. Kudos to us. If you are unsure of the testing process please refer to my link:

How and where to be tested:



Lyme disease can be easy to treat in some while in others, it can feel like a never-ending battle. Chronic Lyme disease, is a systemic, debilitating condition which persists despite antibiotic therapy. The seriousness of this condition and its resistance to treatment requires an individualized treatment plan.  It is widely misunderstood and surrounded by controversy, which causes problems with physicians, friends and family, insurance companies, disability coverage, etc. Lyme can be overwhelming and is often misdiagnosed as MS, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome or some other neurological disorder,


There is no established cure for chronic Lyme disease. The response to treatment varies greatly from patient to patient. Many patients find they need to stay on antibiotics long-term for many years. Patients may also need combinations of antibiotics, co-infection treatments, medications for symptoms, and natural therapies. With these treatments some patients experience full recovery. Those who don’t are left to continue the search for treatment options.


There are support groups online and in the community can be very helpful. These groups enable patients to learn about new treatment options and to connect with others facing the same uncertainties.

I have to insert a caution here as I always do for people with MS/CCSVI: The use of steroids to treat pain causes widespread concern among patients and physicians alike that steroids can be very harmful to patients with Lyme disease. Steroids suppress the immune system, which can be dangerous with an infectious disease.


More and more people with chronic Lyme disease have other tick-borne illnesses as well. These other illnesses contribute to the difficulty with treatment.

Late stage Lyme Disease (LD) is more severe than early stage, and it’s also potentially debilitating. Symptoms of late stage LD can crop up weeks, months or, in some cases, years after a tick bite. Some of the symptoms of late stage LD include fatigue, headaches, sleep disorders, chronic arthritis, joint inflammation in the knees and other joints and memory loss. More severe symptoms include:

• Decreased consciousness

• Confusion

• Numbness and tingling

• Abnormal sensitivity to light

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), after several months, approximately 60 percent of people who don’t get treatment for the infection will begin to have sporadic bouts of arthritis, with severe joint pain and swelling. The large joints are the ones that are most often affected, particularly the knees.

There are three oral antibiotics that are recommended to treat virtually all the symptoms of LD, including late stage—doxycycline, amoxicillin and ceftin. For joint pain and arthritis from late stage LD, doctors usually prescribe medicine that reduces swelling and pain. If needed, excess fluid can be drained from the affected joints.


What Are the Treatments for Late Stage Lyme Disease Joint Pain?

What Are the Treatments for Late Stage Lyme Disease Joint Pain? |

Lyme is a real disease:

Lyme can be a major pain in the butt when it comes to the medical profession:

Lyme And Panic Disease:

Late and Chronic Lyme Disease: Symptom Overlap with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Fibromyalgia

Lyme and the “axis of evil”:

Clinical trials validate the severity of persistent Lyme disease symptoms.$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmed

Insufficient evidence to deny antibiotic treatment to chronic Lyme disease patients:

Headaches  and chronic Lyme pain:

Read one woman’s story of her journey through Lyme disease.

Inexpensive Drug Appears To Relieve Chronic Pain in Fibromyalgia, MS, Lyme Disease, etc.:



Cognitive Issues & Treatments for PwMS/CCSVI

I wrote this 4 years ago. Since then I realize that some symptoms of cognitive dysfunction were omitted. Perhaps I did so purposely because they may have hit too close to home. At the conclusion of the five year clinical study for CCSVI in which I took part, I was given the privilege of reading some results that I have given much thought to since August. Cognitive issues MS/CCSVI or what ever you have chosen to call our condition included are far more complex than I realized. It is my intention to address this issue in greater detail as I prepare a video and article which will chronicle in greater detail my almost 20 year journey through MS.

Of the 50 various MS symptoms I had, cognition, cog fog, MS brain farts, “old timer’s” disease or what ever else you want to call it was by far the most crippling and self-esteem destroying hell I have ever lived through. I have made a few observations:

Cognitive impairment occurs when problems with thought processes occur. It can include loss of higher reasoning, forgetfulness, learning disabilities, concentration difficulties, decreased intelligence, and other reductions in mental functions.

If either memory, or thinking were somehow disrupted, then our ability to process information would be impaired.

Some treatments that have proven to be effective in some people

ACETYL-L-CARNITINE: 1500-4000 mg daily (caution: do not take with blood thinners like Warferin)It also improves blood flow which makes sense for PwMS/CCSVI

  • CITICOLINE: Age-related memory problems. Citicoline seems to help memory loss in people aged 50 to 85 years.
  • Stroke recovery. Stroke patients who take citicoline by mouth within 24 hours of having the kind of stroke that is caused by a clot (ischemic stroke) are more likely than other ischemic stroke patients to have a complete recovery within 3 months.
  • Long-term blood circulation problems in the brain (cerebrovascular diseases). There is some evidence that citicoline taken by mouth or given by IV or as a shot might improve memory and behavior in patients with long-term cerebro-vascular diseases, such as stroke.
  • PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE:  100 mg of phosphatidylserine three times daily.

Description of the how we use our cognitive skills:

  •  focus, maintain and divide attention (concentration)
  • learn and remember new things
  • think, reason and solve problems
  • plan, carry out and monitor our own activities
  • understand and use language
  • recognize objects and assemble things together
  • judge distances (spatial skills)
  • Language processing, concentration and memory problems are the most common symptoms of cognitive dysfunction.
  • ‘Word Fishing” is a common complaint relating to language use, where the person knows what they would like to say but is unable to ‘find the words’.
  • Concentration may result in a person beginning a task, becoming distracted by another but beginning the new task before finishing the first, and so it goes on and on, until there are numerous unfinished chores or tasks.
  • Memory problems too, present a challenge for people with multiple sclerosis, particularly short term memory. This tends to show itself as a failure to remember basic things such as the name of a familiar item or animal, for example.
  • The range of cognitive dysfunctions which can be associated with multiple sclerosis:
  • Verbal fluency and language skills can be impaired
  • Intellectual reasoning can be impaired
  • Inability to learn quickly
  • Poor problem solving abilities
  • Information processing can be slowed
  • Poor concentration
  • Poor judgment
  1. 1.       The majority of people with MS/CCSVI are/were multi-taskers. Someone who can dovetail their projects and complete them is usually is an “A” personality. 10% of people with multiple sclerosis, the impairment to their cognitive functioning will eventually become severe enough to significantly interfere with daily living.
  2. The ones who multitask are the most likely to suffer from cognitive problems. (This is not written in stone, however)
  3. When a brain cell dies, it does not regenerate, it is gone. The brain being the marvelous work and wonder that it is can compensate for a considerable amount of cell death. Even with no formal retraining the brain will often pass the cerebral baton to another part of the brain and learn to compensate for tissue degradation elsewhere.
  4. It is wise to prepare the brain to “cross train “ before the time it becomes a necessity.
  5. A person with MS can develop this symptom at anytime. You may go for ten years with little or no cognitive issues and then find yourself wondering what year it is.
  6. Cognitive problems usually occur over time. Since the person developing the problem may only have a vague feeling that something is wrong, it is often a friend or c0-worker who mentions your changed sense of awareness.
  7. Cognitive impairment may accompany symptoms related to infection including:
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise or lethargy
  • Muscle twitching, spasms or seizures
  • Nausea with or without vomiting
  • Rash
  • Stiff or rigid neck

BTW: other causes of cognitive problems are:

  • chromosome abnormalities and genetic syndromes,
  • malnutrition
  • prenatal drug exposure
  •  poisoning due to lead or other heavy metals
  • hypoglycemia (low blood sugar hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), complications of prematurity, trauma or child abuse such as shaken baby syndrome, or oxygen deprivation in the womb or during or after birth

Cognitive impairment that develops in childhood or adolescence can result from many conditions.

  • Examples include side effects of cancer therapy,
  • malnutrition
  • heavy metal poisoning,
  • autism (abnormal development of communication and social skills), metabolic conditions
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (disorder in which the body attacks its own healthy cells and tissues)

With age, other conditions such as stroke, dementia, delirium, brain tumors, chronic alcohol use or abuse, substance abuse, some vitamin deficiencies, and some chronic diseases may cause cognitive impairment. Head injury and infection of the brain or of the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meninges) can cause cognitive impairment at any age.

Cognitive impairment may accompany other symptoms related to metabolic disorders including:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Abnormal heart rhythm such as rapid heart rate (tachycardia) or slow heart rate (bradycardia)
  • Changes in skin
  • Confusion or loss of consciousness for even a brief moment
  • Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
  • Nausea with or without vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Frequent urination or decrease in urine output
  • Fruity breath
  • Muscle weakness

8.Cognitive impairment may accompany symptoms related to other problems, such as injury, stroke or dementia. These symptoms may include:

  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Changes in mood, personality or behavior
  • Confusion or loss of consciousness for even a brief moment
  • Difficulty with memory, thinking, talking, comprehension, writing or reading
  • Impaired balance and coordination
  • Loss of vision or changes in vision
  • Nausea with or without vomiting
  • Numbness, weakness or paralysis
  • Seizure
  • Severe headacheImage